PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation Entire Course

PA 582 Public Policy Formulation Implementation Entire Course in $129 Only

PA582 Week 1 Discussion 1 & 2


What does the term “public administration” mean to you?

DQ 2


The approaches to public administration can be categorized in various ways. One method is to refer to the approaches as “Managerial, Political, or Legal.” Please choose one of these approaches, and explain the basics.

 PA582 Week 2 Discussion 1 & 2

 DQ 1


What is meant by the term “policy process”? Who may be viewed as stakeholders on a federal public policy issue? To what extent do you feel that the stakeholders should have a say in the process of setting the policy?

DQ 2


Have you ever attended a meeting of a local government? Could you please share your experiences? If not, could you please check the website of a local government in your area, and relate to us the procedures for attending and/or speaking?

PA582 Week 3 Discussion 1 & 2

 DQ 1


How do you think a government budget is similar to your household budget? How do you think it is different?

DQ 2


What are some of the taxes that you pay on a more or less daily basis? Income taxes? Sales taxes? Other? Can you tell which level of government the money is going to?

 PA582 Week 4 Discussion 1 & 2

 DQ 1


Efficiency, equity, and stabilization should be considered as objectives in the development of public policy at any level of government. Please choose an example of a recent public policy, whether in your city or state or nationally, and explain how that policy helped to meet one of these goals.

 DQ 2


Three models of decision making were addressed in this week’s readings. Let’s address each of the three starting with the rational-comprehensive model. Please describe that model. Which approach to public administration does it seem best suited to? Do you like and use this model?

 PA582 Week 5 Discussion 1 & 2

 DQ 1


What is meant by implementation? Assume in this regard that a new policy has been passed by the legislature in your state. In general terms, what are some of the steps for implementation?

DQ 2


What are some of the problems in trying to evaluate the effectiveness of policy outputs and policy implementation?

 PA582 Week 6 Discussion 1 & 2

DQ 1


In general, what is meant by a sunset provision? What is an example of such a provision in federal legislation? How does a sunset provision impact public policy?

DQ 2



What is meant by an initiative (or ballot measure)? Is this technique allowed in every state? If it is allowed, how can it be used by citizens if there is a feeling that the elected officials are ignoring or circumventing a public policy?

PA582 Week 7 Discussion 1 & 2

DQ 1


In general, what is meant by the term public-private partnership? Do you have an example from your own community?

DQ 2


From your studies this session, and especially from your work on the Course Project, what do you feel is a major public policy issue facing the United States in the coming years?

PA582 Week 3 Approaches to Public Administration Paper

This assignment is worth 100 points. Your report is to be prepared as a Word document and transmitted to the instructor. The entire document is to be 600 to 1,000 words in length.

To earn full points, you must address each of these items:

Description of the approaches to public administration: managerial, political, and legal (30 points)

Identify the approach that you identify with the most (15 points).

Explanation of why you selected this approach (20 points)

Identify the approach that you identify with or understand the least (15 points).

In addition, points will be earned based on the following items:

Grammar (10 points)

Spelling (10 points)

American Psychological Association (APA) format should be followed. Outside references are not required, but if any are used, you must properly cite and reference each one. Your text can be used as a reference source for this paper and should be properly referenced if relied on by you for this paper.

PA582 Week 6 Course Project Policy Paper

 Policy Research Paper


The Policy Research Paper is a course-long project that allows you the opportunity to examine a current national societal issue that you feel could be properly alleviated, or perhaps even resolved, via public policy making.

This paper is valued at 200 points. This paper will be graded on the quality of the research topic, the quality of the information properly cited within the paper, the analysis and recommendations, grammar, and sentence structure.

As you consider topics, remember that this policy paper should contain a comprehensive assessment of the problem, the proposed policy, and the potential consequences of implementation of that policy. When you write your paper, you should think of yourself as a staff person who must advise a policy maker facing a problem that must be resolved in the near future. As this staff person, adopt one of the perspectives of public administration as discussed in class, and frame your responses around this approach.

The Policy Research Paper should be 8 to 12 pages, double-spaced, size 12 point font. The paper should include a cover page, table of contents, introduction, body of the report, summary or conclusion, and works cited (reference page). The page count is of the content and, thus does not include the cover, table of contents, or reference page(s).

Even though this is not a scientific-type writing assignment, and is mostly creative in nature, references are still very important. At least six authoritative, outside references are required (anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable). These should be listed on the last page titled “References.”

The paper should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines.

Appropriate citations are required.

All DeVry University policies are in effect, including the plagiarism policy.

Papers are due during Week 6 of this course.

Any questions about this paper may be discussed in the Course Q & A Forum.

The paper should include the following components:


Define the Issue: Introduce the problem or issue that you are researching. The purpose of this section is to tell the reader what problem you are addressing and why it is important.

Background        Describe any historical aspects of the topic, particularly ones that are important to an understanding of the issue. Also important to this section is a discussion of key stakeholders and policy networks. Policy networks include concerned citizen groups, elected officials, and special interest groups.

Identification of Policy Alternatives This is the main section of your paper. In this section, you will describe what is currently being done (if anything) with respect to the problem, and then compare that to what could be done. When you consider possible alternatives that the government could take, remember to include the following:

  1. Description of two to three alternative methods to resolve the issue you presented.
  2. Consequences of each alternative method: For example – who would be affected, what costs might be incurred and by whom, and what benefits might be realized?
  3. Description of evaluation criteria: This should help you compare alternatives across a number of areas. For example, cost could be key criteria for comparing alternatives, but there may be other concerns that are equally important to resolve. You might find an inexpensive alternative, but it might not be politically feasible to implement, for example. Once the criteria are identified, you should establish a way to prioritize the criteria. Which are the most important and why? Think about the discussions in class regarding decision-making and evaluation.

Recommendations: Remember that you wrote this paper from the perspective of a staff person presenting this analysis to a policy maker. Now you are ready to make a recommendation on one of these alternatives. In this section, outline which alternative you would recommend to the policy maker, including a brief summary of how you arrived at this conclusion.

 DeVry PA582 Midterm Exam Answers

Question 7 20 pts

Question 6 5 pts

(TCO E) Which of the following constitutes the largest source of federal revenues?

individual income taxes

corporate income taxes

government borrowing

excise taxes

Question 1 5 pts

(TCO A) Of the following, which is least valued by the political approach to public administration?



clear lines of administrative jurisdiction

interest groups

Question 2 5 pts

(TCO A) As values, representation and transparency:

are equally relevant to the public and private sectors.

have differing relevance to the public and private sectors.

do not bear on the practice of public administration.

none of the above.

Question 3 5 pts

(TCO C) During the 20th century, the government in the United States grew and expanded immensely. This trend has continued into this century. This growth and expansion is known as:

the third-party government.

the Civil Service Reform.

the market-based solution.

the rise of the administrative state.

Question 4 5 pts

(TCO I) Organized interests can influence administrative policy making through

advisory committees.


negotiated rule making.

all of the above.

Question 5 5 pts

(TCO E) Incremental budgeting tends to

reduce political conflict

eliminate agency overlaps

increase political conflict

strictly limit government spending

Question 7 20 pts

(TCO I) Discuss how you as a citizen can try to have an impact on policy making by public administrators and/or the governing body at a local level.

Question 8 20 pts

(TCO C) Define the term “interest group” (or “special interest group”), and explain how an individual may try to influence public policy via such a group.

Question 9 40 pts

(TCO A) Healthcare access and affordability is an issue that has become more prevalent in our society and has been the subject of much debate and legislation. Suppose for the sake of this question that the Congress of the United States government has at long last passed legislation providing for universal healthcare coverage, and the president has signed it into law. In other words, each and every citizen and resident of the United States is now entitled to healthcare services without regard as to the ability to pay.

Focusing only on the legal approach to public administration, please address how the government departments or agencies will be structured to implement this new policy. You may wish to address the values under that approach, the possible organizational structure, the view of the individual, decision making, and budgeting issues.

Question 10 40 pts

(TCO E) Please describe the main steps in the federal budget process. Please explain why understanding that annual process is vital to a policy making public administrator working within the federal government.

DeVry PA582 final exam nswers

(TCO A) Differences between public and private administration can be viewed in terms of (1) constitutional arrangements, (2) the public interest, (3) markets, and (4) sovereignty. Assume for purposes of this question that you are an administrator who just left a position at a for-profit business to work in an agency of the federal government. Explain one factor in at least three of these four areas that will require you to adjust your point of view, your management style, and/or your interaction with “customers.”

Question 2 30 pts

(TCO B) Equity should be one of the goals of an effective public policy. Explain how the adjudication model of decision making in public administration may help to achieve this goal. Also, mention at least one issue that may exist with the use of the adjudication model.

Question 3 30 pts

(TCO C) Statutes enacted by legislatures, whether the Congress of the United States or at a state level, often are vague. Hence, the policy mandates given to public administrators via the legislation are vague. This also shifts much of the policy making to public administrators. Explain the advantages to the public of the public administrators, rather than the elected representatives, making policy via rules and regulations.

Question 4 30 pts

(TCO D) Explain why it is critical for the effectiveness of a public policy or program initiative to be measured. Please also define, or otherwise explain, the terms “policy outputs” and “policy outcomes.”

Question 5 30 pts

(TCO E) As a public administrator seeking funding to achieve policy objectives, one tool that you may be able to consider is the use of dedicated tax revenue. That action would require the authorization of the legislative branch and would need to be signed into law. Yet you could initiate the request that legislation (or an ordinance at a local level) be passed that provides that specific tax revenue would only be used for purposes of your program and/or department. Provide one specific example at the federal level of such a tax. Provide an example in general of such a tax at a local level. What is one advantage of having a dedicated source of revenue at the local level?

Question 6 30 pts

(TCO F) Olympus School District is in a geographic area that is experiencing rapid population growth. As a result, the district needs three additional schools as soon as reasonably possible. The district is allowed to impose property taxes and has a strong tax base. However, provisions on existing bonds payable restrict its ability to issue more bonds to pay for the construction of the new schools. A consultant from the state education department has suggested to the board of the district to consider entering into a “public-private partnership.” Please define this term: public-private partnership. What advantage should occur from entering into such an arrangement? Propose a scenario for the construction of the schools using such an arrangement.

Question 7 30 pts

(TCO G) With driving while impaired being a problem in your state, a new law was enacted requiring stricter enforcement of the existing statutes. As a public administrator in charge of the implementation, describe the steps that you feel should be taken so that the policy can be placed in effect in a cost-effective manner.

Question 8 30 pts

(TCO H) Departments and agencies have seemed to have proliferated over the years at many levels of government. This is due in part to the fact that once an agency is established to implement a new public policy, that entity may continue to exist year-after-year without evaluation as to its continuing relevance. Some might say that this is a problem. A “sunset provision” when an agency is created may help to overcome this potential issue. Please define or otherwise explain the term “sunset provision” in the context of the creation of an agency. Also, explain how such a provision may help the public.

Question 9 30 pts

(TCO I) Democracy can be either direct or indirect. Please define both direct democracy and indirect democracy. Generally, which do we have in the United States? Explain briefly what role initiatives, referendums, and recalls might play in this distinction between direct democracy and indirect democracy.

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