Leadership and Organization Politics

Management 501 Case 5

The case for this module calls for you to look at an exercise in “leadership” and then analyze it in terms of its context, its execution, and its consequences.  As we noted in the introduction to the module, leadership is not often considered to be a political problem, but it certainly makes sense to consider it in this context, since the political environment of the organization constitutes the critical background within which any leader’s efforts must be conducted. Leadership is a political effort, and mobilizes in its service all the formal and informal resources available to those charged with it. For elaboration on these observations, please see:

Leadership and organizational politics.

In order to place this within a larger political context, however, is most useful for you to start by reviewing this excellent summary of issues in organizational politics:

Wilf Ratzburg, Defining Organizational Politics [Obnotes.Htm: available at http://web.archive.org/web/20080216010425/http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1650/htmlpolitc01.html

You’re going to need access to some of the vocabulary of leadership analysis, both for this case and for your future work.  The following is an adequate general summary, cast in a largely nonacademic frame but still reflecting the academic analysis of leadership. (The optional readings and supplementary material contain considerable additional supporting material on leadership analysis if you would like to dig further into this aspect of the case.)

Case Study Analysis: Amazon.com, Inc. – 2004

Case Study Analysis: Amazon.com, Inc. – 2004 in $25 OnlyCase Study Analysis: Amazon.com, Inc.
The case study is Amazon,com, Inc., -2004. You need the provide the answers of following questions after going through the case study.
  1. Identify the firm’s vision, mission, objectives and strategies.
  2. Develop vision and mission statements for organisation.
  3. Identify the organization’s external opportunities and threats.
  4. Construct and External Factor Evaluation (EFE) matrix.
  5. Identify the organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses.
  6. Construct and Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) matrix.
  7. Prepare a Threats-Opportunities-Weakness-Strengths (TOWS) matrix.
  8. Recommend specific strategies and long term objectives.

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Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Billingham Packaging Production Capacity

Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Billingham Packaging Production Capacity

Billingham Packaging is considering expanding its production capacity by purchasing a new machine, the XC-750. The cost of the XC-750 is $2.75 million. Unfortunately, installing this machine will take several months and will partially disrupt production. The firm has just completed a $50,000 feasibility study to analyze the decision to buy the XC-750, resulting in the following estimates:

Marketing: Once the XC-750 is operating next year, the extra capacity is expected to

generate $10 million per year in additional sales, which will continue for the 10-year life of the machine.

Operations: The disruption caused by the installation will decrease sales by $5 million this year. Once the machine is operating next year, the cost of goods for the products produced by the XC-750 is expected to be 70% of their sale price. The increased production will require additional inventory on hand of $1 million to be added in year 0 and depleted in year 10.

Human Resources: The expansion will require additional sales and administrative personnel at a cost of $2 million per year.

Accounting: The XC-750 will be depreciated via the straight-line method over the 10-year life of the machine. The firm expects receivables from the new sales to be 15% of revenues and payables to be 10% of the cost of goods sold. Billingham’s marginal corporate tax rate is 35%.

a. Determine the incremental earnings from the purchase of the XC-750.

b. Determine the free cash flow from the purchase of the XC-750.

c. If the appropriate cost of capital for the expansion is 10%, compute the NPV of the

purchase.

d. While the expected new sales will be $10 million per year from the expansion, estimates range from $8 million to $12 million. What is the NPV in the worst case? In the best case?

e. What is the break-even level of new sales from the expansion? What is the break-even level for the cost of goods sold?

f. Billingham could instead purchase the XC-900, which offers even greater capacity. The cost of the XC-900 is $4 million. The extra capacity would not be useful in the first two years of operation, but would allow for additional sales in years 3–10. What level of additional sales (above the $10 million expected for the XC-750) per year in those years would justify purchasing the larger machine?

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Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Replace Old Machine or Not

Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Replace Old Machine or Not

One year ago, your company purchased a machine used in manufacturing for $110,000. You have learned that a new machine is available that offers many advantages; you can purchase it for $150,000 today. It will be depreciated on a straight-line basis over 10 years, after which it has no salvage value. You expect that the new machine will produce EBITDA (Earnings Before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) of $40,000 per year for the next 10 years. The current machine is expected to produce EBITDA of $20,000 per year. The current machine is being depreciated on a straight-line basis over a useful life of 11 years, after which it will have no salvage value, so depreciation expense for the current machine is $10,000 per year. All other expenses of the two machines are identical. The market value today of the current machine is $50,000. Your company’s tax rate is 45%, and the opportunity cost of capital for this type of equipment is 10%. Is it profitable to replace the year-old machine?

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Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Percolated Fiber Free Cash Flow

Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting: Percolated Fiber Free Cash Flow in $1.50 only (Instant Download)

You are a manager at Percolated Fiber, which is considering expanding its operations in synthetic fiber manufacturing. Your boss comes into your office, drops a consultant’s report on your desk, and complains, “We owe these consultants $1 million for this report, and I am not sure their analysis makes sense. Before we spend the $25 million on new equipment needed for this project, look it over and give me your opinion.” You open the report and find the following estimates (in millions of dollars):

All of the estimates in the report seem correct. You note that the consultants used straight-line depreciation for the new equipment that will be purchased today (year 0), which is what the accounting department recommended. The report concludes that because the project will increase earnings by $4.875 million per year for ten years, the project is worth $48.75 million. You think back to your halcyon days in finance class and realize there is more work to be done!

Management Accounting Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

1. Managerial accounting information is generally prepared for

a. stockholders.

b. creditors.

c. managers.

d. regulatory agencies.

2. Managerial accounting information

a. pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated.

b. pertains to subunits of the entity and may be very detailed.

c. is prepared only once a year.

d. is constrained by the requirements of generally accepted accounting principles.

3. The major reporting standard for presenting managerial accounting information is

a. relevance.

b. generally accepted accounting principles.

c. the cost principle.

d. the current tax law.

4. Managerial accounting is also called

a. management accounting.

b. controlling.

c. analytical accounting.

d. inside reporting.

Bauer Industries Free Cashflow Projections

NPV vs discount rate comparison for two mutual...

Bauer Industries is an automobile manufacturer. Management is currently evaluating a proposal to build a plant that will manufacture lightweight trucks. Bauer plans to use a cost of capital of 12 to evaluate this project. Based on extensive research, it has prepared the following incremental free cash flow projections (in millions of dollars):

a. For this base-case scenario, what is the NPV of the plant to manufacture lightweight trucks?

Financial Statement Comparison of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola

Financial Statement Comparison of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola in $21 Only (Instant Download)

Free Sample Answer Given Below

PepsiCo’s financial statements are presented in Appendix A. Financial statements of The Coca-Cola Company are presented in Appendix B.
This is from the appendixes in the 7th edition of financial accounting byWeygandt, kimmel, and kieso.

Instructions:

(a) Based on the information contained in these financial statements, determine each of the following for each company. Please show all numerical equations including numerator and denominator, not just a final number. Present your work in a comparative format using a table as illustrated:
1) Gross profit for 2008 PepsiCo Coca-Cola and Gross profit rate for 2008.

2) Percent change in operating income from 2007 to 2008.

3) Accounts receivable turnover for 2008.

4) Days sales in receivable for 2008.

5) Inventory turnover for 2008.

6) Days inventory on hand for 2008.

7) Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents from 2007 to 2008.

8 ) Asset turnover ratio for 2008.

Multiple Choice Questions

Real estate economics - with depreciation

1.   A problem with the specific identification method is that

a.   inventories can be reported at actual costs.

b.   management can manipulate income.

c.   matching is not achieved.

d.   the lower of cost or market basis cannot be applied.

2.     In a period of increasing prices, which inventory flow assumption will result in the lowest amount of income tax expense?

a.   FIFO

b.   LIFO

c.   Average Cost Method

d.    Income tax expense for the period will be the same under all assumptions.

3.     When applying the lower of cost or market rule to inventory valuation, market generally means

a.   current replacement cost.

b.   original cost.

c.   resale value.

d.   original cost, less physical deterioration.

Summary of MediSys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team Summary

Summary of MediSys Corp

Write a one page summary of  HBR Brief case study ‘MediSys Corp.: The IntensCare Product Development Team’.

Please, also include the key points of this case study.

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Analysis of Financial Statements of Southwest Airlines Co.

Analysis of Financial Statements of Southwest Airlines Co. in $19 Only (Instant Download)

1) What 3 items of important information does the Southwest income statement reveal about the financial performance of the company over the last three years?
2) What 3 items of important information does the Southwest balance sheet reveal about the financial position of the company over the last two years?
3) Can you identify the major sources of funding for operating costs and capital expenditures used by Southwest Airlines from the information presented in the company’s annual report? If not, how could you get this information?
4) Who is responsible for: a) the issuance, and b) the content of the Southwest financial statements?
5) What assurance, if any, is there that the Southwest financial statements are in compliance with GAAP, and are free of material misstatements?
6) Of what use, if any, are the notes to the financial statements? Quantitative analysis tied to the financial statement concepts will add value to your work.
Sample Answer:
Question 2. What 3 items of important information does the Southwest balance sheet reveal about the financial position of the company over the last two years?

Answer:

Balance is another important statement of final account. It is also known as a report card of the corporation. It shows the position of the company at any particular date. The most three important information from the Southwest income statement are given below:

Improvement in current assets to current liabilities ratio

The company is able to improve its current ratio in last three years. In the year 2006 the current ratio was hovering around below one, however, it increased and touched 1.03 at the end of 2008.

Rising Debt

Debt to equity ratio increased from 0.26 in 2006 to 0.79 at the end of 2008. Debt to assets ratio also increased from 0.13 in 2006 to 0.27 at the end of 2008. In reflecting that in assets financing debt part in increasing faster than equity part.

Decrease in Total Equity

Total equity of the firm was decreased substantially in the year 2008 when it compares to 2007. In 2007 total equity was $6941 million, which fell to $4953 million by the end of 2008.

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Objective Type Questions

a) A company sells a product which has a unit sales price of $5, unit variable cost of $3 and total fixed costs of $120,000. The number of units the company must sell to break even is

  1. 60,000 units.
  2. 24,000 units.
  3. 240,000 units.
  4. 40,000 units.

b) A company has total fixed costs of $120,000 and a contribution margin ratio of 20%. The total sales necessary to break even are

  1. $480,000.
  2. $600,000.
  3. $150,000.
  4. $144,000.

c) At the break-even point of 2,500 units, variable costs are $55,000, and fixed costs are $32,000. How much is the selling price per unit?

  1. $34.80
  2. $9.20
  3. $12.80
  4. $22.00

Management Accounting Questions (AC 330 Unit 2)

Economist salaries by educational attainment.

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1. Classify the items into the following categories: (a)direct materials (b)direct labor (c)manufacturing overhead: 1.salaries for assembly line inspectors 2.insurance on factory machines 3.property taxes on the factory building 4.factory repairs 5. upholstery used in manufacturing furniture 6.wages paid to assembly line workers 7.factory machinery depreciation 8.glue,nails,paint,and other small parts used in production 9.factory supervisors’ salaries 10.wood used in manufacturing furniture

2. Determine the total amt. of (a)delivery service (product) costs and (b) period costs: indirect materials $5400, depreciation on delivery equipment $11200, dispatchers salary $5000, property tax on building $870, CEO salary $12000, gas and oil $2200, drivers’ salaries $11000, advertising $1600, delivery repairs $300, supplies $650, utilities $990, equip repairs $180.

Mini Case: Will Leasing Fly at Continental?

Continental Airlines

CFM 3 Ch 21 Minicase Will Leasing Fly at Continental? in $28 only

  1. Calculate the net advantage to leasing, using the expected residual value and assuming Continental can use all the tax benefits of ownership with a tax rate of 40% and straight line depreciation to the expected residual value. Assume that Continental issues 80% secured debt and 20% unsecured debt to finance a purchase.

a) Calculate rt–the project cost of capital.

b) Calculate the expected lease residual value per aircraft.

c) Calculate the quarterly CFAT per aircraft under the leasing option.

      • Hint: It should be the same each quarter hroughout the term of the lease.
      • The lease payment is tax deductible.
      • Under the leasing option Continental forgoes the depreciation tax deduction.

      d) Calculate the NAL.

          • Assume quarterly compounding to match the lease payments.
          • Continental’s required return on the asset—r, is given.
          • Assume no incremental difference in operating expenses between the purchasing and leasing options.
          • Assume that the lessor claims the ITC.

          2.  Calculate the net advantage to leasing, assuming Continental cannot use any of the tax benefits of ownership and the residual value is (i) the expected residual value, (ii) $50 million, and (iii) $10 million

          Economics Questions (Objective Type)

          A production possibility frontier showing oppo...

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          1. Economics

          • studies human behavior when scarcity exists and choices must be made
          • provides the only reasonable explanation of how people make decisions
          • can accurately explain all human behavior since it is based on the assumption of rationality
          • is better at showing the way things ought to be than the other social sciences are

          2. The expression “There’s no such thing as a free lunch” means

          • that even if the lunch is free, we pay for it in extra calories
          • that resources used up in producing the lunch are not available to satisfy other wants
          • the same thing as “The best things in life are free”
          • you have to work before you can eat

          3. To say that people make marginal decisions means that

          • they usually wait until the last minute before making a decision to buy
          • they weigh the additional costs and additional benefits of various activities before they make a decision
          • most people just barely get by on the incomes they earn and live from day to day on the very edge of subsistence
          • given a choice, most people would prefer to make their own decisions concerning the things that affect their lives

          4. Economic theories are

          • useful because they are as exact as theories in the physical sciences
          • useless because they are based on abstractions
          • useful because they allow us to make predictions
          • too complex to understand because they include all of reality

          5. Economists believe that individuals respond in a predictable way to changes in costs and benefits. The term that best describes this belief is

          • rational behavior
          • scarcity
          • demand
          • supply

          Mini Case: The Power to Cool Off in Florida (Indiantown Cogeneration Project)

          Tabebuia caraiba. Jensen Beach, Martin County,...

          CFM3 Ch 10 Minicase The Power to Cool Off in Florida             in $19 only

          Objective:
          This case demonstrates the use of NPV, IRR, and financial ratios for evaluating a capital budgeting project.
          Case Discussion:
          The Indiantown Cogeneration Project involved the construction and operation of a coal-fired plant in Martin County, Florida, that produces electricity and steam. The capital cost (including interest during construction) was approximately $770 million. Since completion, it has an electric generating capacity of 330 megawatts (net) and a steam capacity of 175,000 pounds per hour. The project sells the electric power to Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) under a 30-year contract and the steam to Caulkins Indiantown Citrus Company under a 15-year contract.

          FPL’s electricity payments have two parts: one for electric capacity and the other for the electric energy that it receives.

          The project’s financing consisted of $630 million of 30-year 9% APR interest rate debt and $140 million of equity. The debt requires equal annual sinking fund payments of $31.5 million beginning in year 11. Depreciation is straight line to zero over 20 years. The tax rate is 40%. Other information about the project includes:

          STRATEGIC INVESTMENT DECISIONS: Schweser Satellites Inc.

          Cost-Volume-Profit diagram, decomposing Total ...

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          STRATEGIC INVESTMENT DECISIONS: Schweser Satellites Inc.

          Schweser Satellites Inc. Produces satellite earth stations that sell for $100,000 each. The firm’s fixed cost, F, are $2 million; 50 earth stations are produced and sold each year; profits total $500,000; and the firms assets (all equity financed) are $5million. The firm estimates that it can change its production process, adding $4million to investment and $500,000 to fixed operating costs. This change will (1) reduce variable costs per unit by $10,000 and (2) increase output by 20 units, but (3) sales price on all units will have to be lowered to $95,000 to permit sales of the additional output. The firm has tax loss carry forwards that cause its tax rate to be zero, its cost equity is 15 percent, and it uses no debt.

          1. Should the firm make the change?
          2. Would the firms operating leverage increase or decrease if it made the change? What about its breakeven point?
          3. Would the new situation expose the firm to more or less business risk than the old one?

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